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Car-Free Cities Around the World: 12 Great Urban Examples

An image displaying a municipality with cars versus one without cars

On a planet specified by urbanisation and environmental concerns, car-free cities virtually the world are gaining traction as a solution to gainsay pollution. With people oriented urban planning and the prioritisation of pedestrians and cyclists, we’ll see what it takes to make a car-free city.

From Venice’s waterways to Copenhagen’s Greenwave, we’ll squint at 12 car-free cities and explore a little of their history. But first, what is the main vision of a municipality without cars?

A Municipality without Cars

The main idea of a municipality without cars is to create an environment that prioritises sustainable transport over private, individual automobiles. This is washed-up to write the car-centric issues of congestion, noise, pollution, and a lack of public space.

In short, the goal is to make the municipality a increasingly livable place, transforming urban environments into green, wipe and socially inclusive areas. This moreover aims to future-proof the city, reclaiming streets as public spaces that are for the well stuff and convenience of its residents and not of its cars.

In most carless cities, there’s an accent on ‘micro mobility’ (small, lightweight modes of transportation). This includes traditional bicycles, but moreover plans for e–bikes and electric scooters. For this reason, expect to see roads replaced with velocipede highways that stretch wideness municipality centres.

image credit: lawrence goozee

Part of the vision of a car-free municipality might moreover be velocipede sharing facilities. The Boris velocipede in London is one such example, but Europe has enjoyed restrictedly an explosion in popularity.

Of course, these aren’t only found in car-free cities, but are indicative of the sort of infrastructure you might expect to see.

Car-Free Municipality Definition

A car-free municipality is an urban environment where private, motorised vehicles are either entirely vetoed or heavily restricted within unrepealable parts of the city. This is washed-up to promote sustainability, to unstrap traffic and to once then prioritise people over cars.

The infrastructure usually promotes and prioritises increasingly sustainable forms of transport. You can expect to see velocipede friendly infrastructure, such as comprehensive velocipede networks and velocipede sharing programs.

It’s probably largest to think of the definition of ‘car-free city’ as increasingly of a scale. Restructuring cities to remove all cars is an enormous task and may have some ramified repercussions.

Instead, what you’re increasingly likely to see are car-free initiatives in specific areas, where cars are not plane necessarily banned, but strongly discouraged.

For example, you might see incentives for using increasingly sustainable modes of transportation, such as heavily subsidised public transit. Or, on the other hand, you might moreover see disincentives for car usage, like higher parking fees or congestion charges.

Whilst we may be worldly-wise to dream of a car self-ruling municipality where we can trundling in peace (hooray!) projects like this take time. Rather, they are part of an ongoing process to make urban environments increasingly livable.

Car-Free Cities: Advantages and Disadvantages


Improved health: Most modern car-free cities are known to encourage exercise through cycling and walking.

Safer: Fewer cars ways fewer road traffic fatalities.

More untried space: A greater sense of polity and communal living.

Tourist attraction: A lack of cars can be a unconfined witchery to tourists and isn’t just salubrious for locals.

Reduced Infrastructure Costs: Whilst initial investment may be high, reducing the number of cars can save a huge value of money on road maintenance.


Initially disruptive: There’s an initial period of disruption for residents and commuters alike.

Complex: Car-free cities require ramified plans to overcome difficult logistical questions.

Limited Accessiblilty: Do car-free cities do unbearable for those with mobility issues or particular transportation needs?

Emergency Services: Car-free cities have to consider wangle requirements and infrastructure to support emergency services.

Local Merchantry Impact: Businesses’ relying on car traffic may have to yo-yo their models to stave economic shortfalls.

Car-Free Cities Virtually the World: 12 Examples

In the pursuit sections we’ll squint at examples of car-free cities in Europe, USA and Africa to see what it a carless municipality can really squint like.

Pontevedra, Spain
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1. Pontevedra, Spain

In the northwest of Spain, we find Pontevedra. It’s gained enormous international recognition for its urban planning achievements, and is considered a role model in the field.

Pontvedra as a municipality was suffering immensely from the intensity of congestion. “It was a sad and stressed” place where people didn’t want to live in the centre. But that all reverted with the visit of Anxo Fernandez Lores to Mayor.

A medical doctor by profession, Lores revolutionised the city, attracting new residents and business. At the time of writing, he continues in his role as mayor.

The alterations he’s made have had an wondrous impact. The municipality has seen a CO2 emissions reduction of over 70%, and in 2016, the police in Pontevedra did not issue a single speeding ticket.

Whilst not without difficulties, the initiatives have largely succeeded. The greatest success? A transpiration in people’s mindset. Cars are seen as guests on the streets.

How Pontevedra Became Car-Free

  • 1999: Realisation that traffic was causing congestion, pollution, and diminishing quality of life. Experimentation of pedestrianising unrepealable streets, limiting vehicle access.
  • 2007: “Peatonalización del Casco Historico” (Pedestrianisation of the History Centre) is launched, gaining huge momentum. Largely car-free municipality centre permits only essential services and residents’ vehicles. Widened sidewalks and pedestrian plazas were implemented.
  • 2009: Introduction of “Zona 30” (30km/h Zone). Increases in road safety, promotion of volitional transportation modes.
  • Ongoing: The municipality remains single-minded to its car-free vision with continuous public transportation improvements and sustainable urban planning.

Venice, Italy
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2. Venice, Italy

Perhaps there are few cities increasingly infamously car-free than Venice. Interestingly, the municipality of love is not car-free considering of modern planning initiatives, but rather, due to its unique geography and rememberable urban design.

Venice is a municipality known for its geography, increasingly specifically, its canals. The municipality was built on a network of islands and marshlands where boats served as the primary mode of transportation for people and goods.

The municipality is really well-balanced of increasingly than 100 islands, each separated by canals. These islands are largely unfluctuating by small bridges and footpaths. Whilst stuff suitable for pedestrians and bikes, this geography made it difficult to construct roads suitable for car traffic.

Quite simply, it is a municipality that wasn’t built with cars in mind. It has unusually evolved without the need for automobiles, and ultimately, never saw their widespread adoption. On land today, walking and cycling are the preferred ways to navigate its winding streets.

How Venice Became Car-Free

  • 5th Century: City founded on a series of islands. Sparsity of land leads to the minutiae of a municipality built virtually canals.
  • Middle Ages: Venice grows into a powerful maritime republic, where boats and gondolas serve as the primary modes of transport.
  • 19th-20th Century: Steam and subsequent motor powered boats threaten cities’ soft-hued waterway architecture. Efforts to restrict usage are part of ‘preservation’ of Venice.
  • Ongoing: Still, predominantly, a water-dependent lifestyle. The sparsity of cars is celebrated, and helps to preserve its cultural heritage.

Groningen, Netherlands

3. Groningen, Netherlands

Whilst not entirely car-free, Groningen deserves its rightful place on this list for one simple reason: it’s one of the most velocipede friendly cities in the world.

Of course, we’d expect nothing less from the Netherlands. The Dutch appreciation for the bicycle is worthy of any utopia. But in Groningen, the culture of cycling is unparalleled. Over 60% of all traffic movement is washed-up by bicycle.

There is an wide-stretching network of bike lanes, paths and routes that are well maintained and are the veins of the city. There’s moreover an zillions of velocipede parking and velocipede sharing programs which integrate well with the public transport system.

Over 60% of all traffic in Groningen is washed-up by bicycle.

But, the most impressive speciality is the attitude. Groningen hosts cycling events, campaigns and workshops that gloat and promote cycling. The educational initiatives, for children and adults, help to create a cycling-conscious community.

There are zones that are entirely car-free and others where car wangle is heavily restricted. But, most importantly, people want to cycle.

How Groningen Became Car-Free

  • 1977: Groningen introduces traffic plan aimed at limiting car wangle to
  • the municipality centre and promoting cycling/public transport.
  • 1980s: Investment in cycling infrastructure, such as velocipede lanes and paths. Cycling is encouraged as a primary mode of transport.
  • 1990s: Expansion of existing network, secure parking facilities.
  • 2000s: Car-free zones, traffic calming measures, incentives for cycling.
  • 2010s: Integrated transport system that combines cycling and public transport.
  • Ongoing: Cycling is tightly ingrained in Groningen’s identity, not just for residents but for students as well. As of 2015, it boasted the cleanest air of any Dutch city.

Ghent Belgium

4. Ghent, Belgium

Ghent is flipside vision of a Utopian cycling city. Whilst not car-free, municipality centre wangle is restricted or prohibited to cars during unrepealable hours, such as on sundays.

Without so many cars in the city, people unquestionably want to live tropical to the centre.

As with Groningen, there’s been an accent on education and cycling promotion. There are regular campaigns, events and initiatives all to encourage residents to segregate cycling.

In fact, it’s so successful that some residents have started to put their chairs out in the summer to sit on the pavements and talk. The streets, one resident said, have wilt ‘living’.

This is unquestionably part of Ghents goals to work towards a ‘child and youth-friendly’ city, where reducing the number of cars in cities makes kids happier and safer.

How Ghent Became Car-Free

  • 1996: Ghent begins implementing pedestrian zones and reducing car access, prioritising pedestrians and cyclists.
  • 2007: Expansion of pedestrian zones, introducing car-free areas in other parts of the centre.
  • 2017: Introduction of the ‘Circulatieplan’ to make a increasingly people-centric city. Zone management and widespread restriction of car access.
  • Unique/Interesting: Occasional ‘Car-free Sundays’ where cyclists, pedestrians and plane skateboarders are given “free rein” in the municipality centre. Municipality chosen for ‘Velo-city’ 2024 (world cycling summit).

Mackinac Island, USA
Image credit: Canva Pro

5. Mackinac Island, USA

If you’re looking for a car-free municipality in the USA, then Mackinac Island is your weightier option.

Located between Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas, the 4.35 sq mile Mackinac Island is well known for its unique car-free history.

Originally inhabited by the Anishinaabe ethnic people, the island became a strategic location for fur trading in the 17th century.

By the late 19th century, it became a popular summer destination for wealthy tourists, leading to the minutiae of grand hotels and impressive Victorian architecture.

Cars, interestingly, were vetoed very early on. Concerns of noise were raised in the late 19th century, leading to the visualization to ban cars entirely.

The story goes that in 1898, the first ‘horseless carriage’ made its way onto the island by ferry boat. Apparently, the first encounter between horse and horseless transport was so chaotic, that businessmen filed a petition with the village steering to ban them.

Since then, the continual sparsity of cars has helped to preserve the recreate of the island. It continues to be a popular tourist destination to this day, where tourists and residents unwrinkled navigate by velocipede and horse-drawn carriage.

How Mackinac Island Became Car-Free

  • Late 1800s: Island gains popularity as a summer resort. Concerns well-nigh potential impact of automobiles on the islands natural eyeful and atmosphere
  • 1896: First known automobile to victorious on the island.
  • 1898: After ‘chaotic’ meeting of horse and horseless carriage, steering passed a motion banning automobiles from the island.
  • 2023: Mackinac Island celebrates 125 years of stuff car-free.
  • Unique/Interesting: The Island’s car-free status is part of its request to tourists who want to wits a populated but peaceful environment.

Copenhagen, Denmark
Image credit: Canva Pro

6. Copenhagen, Denmark

Whilst it doesn’t quite gloat the car-free status of Mackinac Island, Copenhagen definitely has its place on this list.

Copenhagen has a rich history of implementing measures to prioritise cycling and public transport. These days, it is regarded as a leader in sustainable transport and urban planning.

Copenhagen has unfurled to remain single-minded to sustainable transport, where ongoing initiatives promote not only traditional bikes, but electric ones as well. Where Mackinac Island is car-free and traditional, Copenhagen is the modern alternative.


The municipality has introduced Greenwave for cyclists with enormous success. Essentially, this encourages spritz for cyclists, meaning reduced journey times and less frequent stopping.

It’s a livable, pedestrian friendly municipality that isn’t entirely car-free, but is nevertheless a global model for cities seeking to move yonder from car dependency.

How Copenhagen Became Car-Free

  • 1962: First pedestrian street, Stroget, whence a shift to pedestrian prioritisation in the centre.
  • 1990s: Car-free zones introduced, including in historic districts. Car wangle is heavily restricted or prohibited.
  • 2002: Launch of ‘Bicycle Strategy’, where cycling is promoted as the preferred mode of transport. Cycling infrastructure expanded with protected velocipede lanes and sharing programs.
  • 2012: ‘Greenwave’ introduced for cyclists on Nørrebrogade, a rented street in a major shopping district. Traffic lights are synchronised to provide a continuous spritz of greens for cyclists travelling at a specific speed.
  • Ongoing: Success of Greenwave has prompted the municipality to expand the initiative. Cycling continues to be the weightier way to traverse the city.

Lamu, Kenya
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7. Lamu, Kenya

Moving continent once again, to the historic island of Lamu off the tailspin of Kenya. A town with a rich cultural and architectural heritage, Lamu is known for its extremely limited use of motorised vehicles.

Dating when over a thousand years, Lamus’ location made it an important centre for trade in the Indian Ocean. Its rich history is a melting pot of Arab, Indian and Swahili cultures among others.

Due to its narrow streets, cars are impractical on Lamu. Similarly to Venice, it’s this impracticality of cars that has resulted in their absence.

Instead of cars, locals and tourists prefer traditional modes of transport, such as bicycles and donkeys. It’s partly thanks to the sparsity of cars that Lamu is considered to be one of the best-preserved examples of a Swahili settlement in East Africa.

More recently, there have been discussions well-nigh introducing motorised vehicles to Lamu for emergency services and airport shuttling, however concerns remain well-nigh how this could impact the town’s unique heritage.

How Lamu Became Car-Free

  • 11th-12th Century: Lamu established as a centre of trade; an intersection between variegated cultures.
  • Pre-Modern Era: Urban diamond with narrow streets and pathways that were built for pedestrians and donkeys. Little modernisation of infrastructure ways this never changed, so cars remain impractical.
  • 2001: Lamu’s old town is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Problems: Difficulties remain, such as with emergency services. Boat ambulances introduced slantingly existing measures to reduce journey times to major hospitals.

Giethoorn, Netherlands
Image credit: Canva Pro

8. Giethoorn, Netherlands

If we’re looking for models of a car-free utopia, it’s little surprise that we’re revisiting the Netherlands.

In Giethoorn, charmingly referred to as the “Venice of the North”, canals function as the main transportation routes within the village. Instead of roads, there are mostly footpaths and wooden bridges that connect the village together.

Giethoorn is often considered for its wifely and beauty, which is undoubtedly made possible by the lack of roads and subsequent lack of cars.

Similarly to other successful models in Europe, the accent is not necessarily on eradicating cars, but rather, promoting alternative means of transport.

The canals provide perfect waterways to transport goods and people, and there’s plenty of velocipede parking facilities for those who wish to explore on two wheels.

Admittedly, Giethoorn is small unbearable to largely be traversed by foot. It’s probably a largest idea to leave your velocipede on the outside of the village and stroll through.

Whilst not a city, Giethoorn can show us what a car-free environment can (and should!) squint and finger like.

How Giethoorn Became Car-Free

  • 13th Century: Giethoorn founded by settlers from southern Europe, canals were dug for transportation and peat extraction.
  • 18th Century: Beginning of construction of the bridges that connect the variegated pieces of land.
  • 1958: Popular spectacle “Fanfare” shot in the village, saw an increase in popularity.
  • Interesting: As of 2020, there were fewer than 3000 people living there but increasingly than 1,000,000 yearly tourists.

Oslo, Norway
Image credit: Canva Pro

9. Oslo, Norway

Oslo, like so many other cities on this list, has experienced its pearly share of problems with cars in the city.

In the 60’s and 70’s, increased car ownership had ultimately led to traffic congestion. Urban minutiae at the time unprotesting this rise in ownership with car centric infrastructure. The municipality became increasingly polluted and uncomfortable for the residents.

Fortunately since then Oslo has seen a unconfined number of policies designed to discourage private car ownership and get people onto two feet and two wheels.

Text: "Vision Zero aims for zero traffic fatalities through safer road diamond and education."

One of the most interesting principles in Oslo is “Vision Zero”; a road safety philosophy that there should be no fatalities or serious accidents from road traffic accidents.

With Vision Zero as a goal, road safety is taken extremely seriously. There’s been huge changes implemented, from restructuring roads and velocipede lanes, to investment in public transportation.

Pedestrians are protected with initiatives that install safer crossings and lower speed limits for cars, resulting in less fatalities on the road.

After a considerable effort, in 2019 Oslo achieved Vision Zero; something that all cities can learn from.

How Oslo Became Car-Free

  • 1980s-1990s: Efforts to modernize air quality and car dependency begin, Pedestrian streets/car-free zones established.
  • 2000s: Focus on improving public transport (trams, buses, trains). Cycling infrastructure expanded with defended velocipede lanes and velocipede sharing programs.
  • 2010s: Oslo commits to having a car-free centre by 2019 (Car-free Livability Program).
  • 2014: Jan Gelh conducts a survey on public life in Oslo, identifies heavy traffic, disused public spaces, lack of vital infrastructure (benches, fountains) and a lack of untried space. This ignites a movement to ‘increase municipality life’.
  • Current: The city, though not car free, has “basically no cars”. The key? Removing parkings spots and replacing them with velocipede lanes. The gradual approach, but a successful one.

Hydra, Greece
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10. Hydra, Greece

Hydra, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, boasts a car-free status, albeit a slightly variegated one to the others on this list.

Its narrow streets and hilly terrain meant that cars were deemed impractical. Whilst attempts have been made, the local polity has persevered and have succeeded in preserving Hydra’s historic recreate and tranquillity.

But Hydra has gone one step further. A presidential prescription from the 50’s included a rule that all wheeled vehicles cannot be used there. This doesn’t just ban cars, but moreover bicycles as well. Since most of the town is built on steep, rising hills, this doesn’t seem to matter too much.

There are some inconveniences. Fires on the island are a regular occurrence and can be a rencontre to deal with. The solution in the town? Grab a bucket and help out.

Today, Hydra is prestigious for its lack of cars. Despite daily inconveniences (like not stuff worldly-wise to cycle!) it is praised as a peaceful and largely silent utopia.

How Hydra Became Car-Free

  • 18th Century: Hydra was a significant naval power, known for its maritime trade and shipbuilding.
  • Early 20th Century: Cars became increasingly popular on the mainland, but proved impractical on the island.
  • 1950s: Presidential prescription rules that wheel vehicles cannot be used there.
  • 1960s: Mayor proposed introducing cars, but is met with strong opposition.
  • Today: The lack of cars has made Hydra a unconfined tourist destination for those wanting a day trip from Athens. Walking, donkeys and water taxis remain the primary ways of transport on the island.

Zermatt, Switzerland
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11. Zermatt, Switzerland

Zermatt, the picturesque Swiss town, isn’t only renowned for its proximity to the Matterhorn.

Zermatt has unchangingly attracted mountaineers and tourists, and with the construction of railways wideness Switzerland, it became increasingly accessible.

However, early concerns were raised well-nigh the negative effects of car traffic on the precious environment surrounding the town.

Zermatt relies mostly on electric vehicles for transport

Today, if you want to momentum there, you’ll have to leave your car in the nearby town of Täsch and take a train.

It’s a unconfined destination for an eco-friendly getaway, and the lack of privately owned cars certainly adds to its charm.

How Zermatt Became Car-Free

  • 19th Century: Zermatt attracts mountaineers and tourists for its tall landscapes.
  • Late 19th Century: Advent of railways leads to greater accessibility,
  • 1960s – 1970s: Discussions well-nigh the negative effects of car traffic on the local environment proceeds momentum.
  • 1980s – 1980s: Promotion of volitional ways of transport.
  • 1991: Private cars are officially vetoed from inward the village.
  • Today: Walking is the weightier way to get around, but bikes and electric taxis are extremely popular.

Freiburg, Germany
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12. Vauban/Freiburg, Germany

In the southwest of Germany, we find Freiburg, a municipality with a history of progressive urban planning.

A municipality of virtually 220,000 people, Freiburg started excluding cars from its centre as early as the 1960s.

But what would a car-free municipality squint like if we could build it from scratch? Enter Vauban – a success story in people-oriented urban planning.

Situated just 15-20 minutes (by public transport) from Freiburgs’ inside station, this utopian neighbourhood was designed to make the need for a car scrutinizingly zero.

Here, cars are allowed, but the speed limit is three miles an hour, they must requite priority to those not in cars and cannot park on the street. As in Oslo, the solution to removing cars, it seems, is to remove parking spots.

The result? Kids play in the street and can learn how to ride a velocipede in peace. Now what kind of a Utopia wouldn’t have that?

How Vauban/Freiburg Became Car-Free

  • 1950s-1990s: Vauban district was a French military wiring used without WWII. Occupation continues until the early 90’s.
  • Late 1990s: Plans ripened to convert the wiring into a residential area. Sustainability and innovative urban diamond run at the core.
  • Early 2000s: Vauban begins its transformation into a car self-ruling community. Public transport improved, pedestrians and bikes prioritised.
  • Mid 2000s: Concept of limited parking is embraced, where shared parking is pushed to the outer edges of the district. Communal, untried spaces incorporated to promote a sense of community.
  • 2005-2010: Residents participate in designing and redesigning the district. Vauban becomes a sustainable model for clean, untried urban living without cars.
  • Today: Whilst only a neighbourhood of Freiburg, Vauban is truly testament to what is possible. Cars, whilst not banned, are quite simply not necessary for most people. The district is not just a role model for the rest of the city, but for the world.

Traffic in London, United Kingdom

Car-Free Cities in Europe

  • Pontevedra, Spain
  • Venice, Italy
  • Groningen, Netherlands
  • Ghent, Belgium
  • Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Giethoorn, Netherlands
  • Oslo, Norway
  • Hydra, Greece
  • Zermatt, Switzerland
  • Vauban/Freiburg, Germany

More Cities Turning Their Backs on Cars

Whilst there’s a unconfined deal to be learnt from our list of car-free cities, there are lots of other cities that are making similar efforts.

In London, the congestion tuition often discourages people from driving into the centre unless they really need to (or, if they aren’t concerned well-nigh the money).

There’s moreover been the introduction of the ‘cycle superhighways’, but conflicts between boroughs have limited their effectiveness. Whilst most cities have been towers increasingly velocipede lanes, the municipal of Kensington and Chelsea has been removing them from the Upper Street.

Paris is a municipality that’s made similar efforts. Its velocipede sharing program ‘Velib’ is one of the most famous in Europe, and E-bike sharing schemes have wilt increasingly popular. It’s invested heavily in cycling infrastructure, but has not necessarily washed-up unbearable to remove cars,

For example, there was the infamous ‘alternate day’ licence plate bans, but unfortunately there was little washed-up to prevent people from ownership a second car.

For the 2024 Olympics, however, they’re hoping to ban ‘non-essential’ traffic from passing through the centre. Whilst this could be a unconfined resurgence and could seriously reduce air pollution, whether it’s unbearable to discourage drivers without the event remains unclear.

Are Cars Really Vetoed in Car-Less Cities?

In car-less cities cars are not necessarily banned, but are increasingly commonly discouraged. There may be zones that are car-free, but due to the practical challenges and needs of residents, this isn’t unchangingly appropriate. Instead, it’s increasingly towardly to reduce car dependency.

If we’ve learnt anything from our list, it’s that getting cars off the road requires a combination of variegated approaches. This can be washed-up by improving infrastructure for sustainable ways of transport, incentivising a switch from a car to a velocipede or an e-bike, and/or making the streets safer for those who use them.

Whether or not the car-free Utopia can exist remains to be seen. Until then, it’s something that we can all work towards, so that we can not only modernize our quality of life but, ultimately, make our cities increasingly livable again.

The post Car-Free Cities Virtually the World: 12 Unconfined Urban Examples appeared first on Discerning Cyclist.

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